Their son Mulopwe Luseeng expanded the kingdom. His son Naweej expanded the empire further and is known as the first Lunda emperor, with the title Mwata Yamvo mwaant yaav, mwant yav , the "Lord of Vipers". The Luba political system was retained, and conquered peoples were integrated into the system. The mwata yamvo assigned a cilool or kilolo royal adviser and tax collector to each state conquered. The Imbangala of inland Angola claimed descent from a founder, Kinguri, brother of Queen Rweej, who could not tolerate the rule of mulopwe Tshibunda.
Kinguri became the title of kings of states founded by Queen Rweej's brother. During the 17th century, a Lunda chief and warrior called Mwata Kazembe set up an Eastern Lunda kingdom in the valley of the Luapula River.
The Lunda's western expansion also saw claims of descent by the Yaka and the Pende. The Lunda linked Central Africa with the western coast trade. The kingdom of Lunda came to an end in the 19th century when it was invaded by the Chokwe , who were armed with guns.
List of rulers of Kongo Kongo in By the 15th century CE, the farming Bakongo people ba being the plural prefix were unified as the Kingdom of Kongo under a ruler called the manikongo , residing in the fertile Pool Malebo area on the lower Congo River.
The capital was M'banza-Kongo. With superior organization, they were able to conquer their neighbors and extract tribute. They were experts in metalwork, pottery, and weaving raffia cloth. They stimulated interregional trade via a tribute system controlled by the manikongo. Later, maize corn and cassava manioc would be introduced to the region via trade with the Portuguese at their ports at Luanda and Benguela. The maize and cassava would result in population growth in the region and other parts of Africa, replacing millet as a main staple.
By the 16th century, the manikongo held authority from the Atlantic in the west to the Kwango River in the east. Each territory was assigned a mani-mpembe provincial governor by the manikongo. In , Afonso I — , a Christian, took over the throne. Slave trading increased with Afonso's wars of conquest. About to , the Jaga invaded Kongo, laying waste to the kingdom and forcing the manikongo into exile.
During the latter part of the s, the Portuguese tried to gain control of Kongo. The empire dissolved into petty polities, fighting among each other for war captives to sell into slavery.
Ndongo was ruled by the ngola. The kingdom was not as welcoming as Kongo; it viewed the Portuguese with great suspicion and as an enemy. The Portuguese in the latter part of the 16th century tried to gain control of Ndongo but were defeated by the Mbundu. Ndongo experienced depopulation from slave raiding.
The leaders established another state at Matamba , affiliated with Queen Nzinga , who put up a strong resistance to the Portuguese until coming to terms with them. The Portuguese settled along the coast as trade dealers, not venturing on conquest of the interior.
Slavery wreaked havoc in the interior, with states initiating wars of conquest for captives. The Imbangala formed the slave-raiding state of Kasanje , a major source of slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries. History of Chad , History of South Sudan , History of Cameroon , History of Central African Republic , and History of the Democratic Republic of the Congo During the Conference of Berlin in Africa was divided up between the European colonial powers, defining boundaries that are largely intact with today's post-colonial states.
The countries of the basin regained their independence between and , retaining the colonial administrative boundaries. In , South Sudan gained its independence from the Republic of Sudan after over 50 years of war. In the 21st century, many jihadist and Islamist groups began to operate in the Central African region, including the Seleka and the Ansaru.
Economy[ edit ] Fishing in Central Africa The main economic activities of Central Africa are farming, herding and fishing. Flood recession agriculture is practiced around Lake Chad and in the riverine wetlands.
When the dry season starts they move back south, either to grazing lands around the lakes and floodplains, or to the savannas further to the south. The governments only enforced rules and regulations to a limited extent. These include the Mongo , Kongo and Luba peoples. Islam is also practiced in some areas in Chad and the Central African Republic.