Biography[ edit ] Daniel Kahneman was born in Tel Aviv , Mandatory Palestine in , where his mother, Rachel  was visiting relatives. He spent his childhood years in Paris , France , where his parents had emigrated from Lithuania in the early s.
Kahneman and his family were in Paris when it was occupied by Nazi Germany in Kahneman and his family then moved to British Mandatory Palestine in , just before the creation of the state of Israel Kahneman, Kahneman has written of his experience in Nazi-occupied France , explaining in part why he entered the field of psychology: It must have been late or early I had gone to play with a Christian friend and had stayed too late.
I turned my brown sweater inside out to walk the few blocks home. As I was walking down an empty street, I saw a German soldier approaching. He was wearing the black uniform that I had been told to fear more than others — the one worn by specially recruited SS soldiers.
As I came closer to him, trying to walk fast, I noticed that he was looking at me intently. Then he beckoned me over, picked me up, and hugged me. I was terrified that he would notice the star inside my sweater.
He was speaking to me with great emotion, in German. When he put me down, he opened his wallet, showed me a picture of a boy, and gave me some money. I went home more certain than ever that my mother was right: After earning his undergraduate degree, he served in the psychology department of the Israeli Defense Forces. One of his responsibilities was to evaluate candidates for officer's training school, and to develop tests and measures for this purpose.
His dissertation, advised by Susan Ervin , examined relations between adjectives in the semantic differential and "allowed me to engage in two of my favorite pursuits: His early work focused on visual perception and attention.
Judgment and decision-making[ edit ] This period marks the beginning of Kahneman's lengthy collaboration with Amos Tversky. Kahneman was ultimately awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics in for his work on prospect theory. Following this, the pair teamed with Paul Slovic to edit a compilation entitled "Judgement Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases" that proved to be an important summary of their work and of other recent advances that had influenced their thinking.
In his Nobel biography, Kahneman states that his collaboration with Tversky began after Kahneman had invited Tversky to give a guest lecture to one of Kahneman's seminars at Hebrew University in or They published seven articles in peer-reviewed journals in the years — A young economist named Richard Thaler was a visiting professor at the Stanford branch of the National Bureau of Economic Research during that same year. According to Kahneman, "[Thaler and I] soon became friends, and have ever since had a considerable influence on each other's thinking" Kahneman, , p.
Building on prospect theory and Kahneman and Tversky's body of work, Thaler published "Toward a Positive Theory of Consumer Choice" in , a paper which Kahneman has called "the founding text in behavioral economics " Kahneman, , p. Kahneman and Tversky became heavily involved in the development of this new approach to economic theory, and their involvement in this movement had the effect of reducing the intensity and exclusivity of their earlier period of joint collaboration.
They would continue to publish together until the end of Tversky's life, but the period when Kahneman published almost exclusively with Tversky ended in , when he published two papers with Anne Treisman , his wife since Hedonic psychology[ edit ] In the s, Kahneman's research focus began to gradually shift in emphasis towards the field of " hedonic psychology ".
This subfield is closely related to the positive psychology movement, which was steadily gaining in popularity at the time. According to Kahneman and colleagues, Hedonic psychology It is concerned with feelings of pleasure and pain, of interest and boredom, of joy and sorrow, and of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. It is also concerned with the whole range of circumstances, from the biological to the societal, that occasion suffering and enjoyment.
After publishing multiple articles and chapters in all but one of the years spanning the period — for a total of 23 published works in 8 years , Kahneman published exactly one chapter during the years — After this hiatus, articles on utility and the psychology of utility began to appear e.
In , Varey and Kahneman introduced the method of evaluating moments and episodes as a way to capture "experiences extended across time". While Kahneman continued to study decision-making e.
The "illusion" occurs when people consider the impact of one specific factor on their overall happiness, they tend to greatly exaggerate the importance of that factor, while overlooking the numerous other factors that would in most cases have a greater impact.
A good example is provided by Kahneman and Schkade's paper "Does living in California make people happy? A focusing illusion in judgments of life satisfaction". In that paper, students in the Midwest and in California reported similar levels of life satisfaction, but the Midwesterners thought their Californian peers would be happier. The only distinguishing information the Midwestern students had when making these judgments was the fact that their hypothetical peers lived in California.
Thus, they "focused" on this distinction, thereby overestimating the effect of the weather in California on its residents' satisfaction with life.