The burial of these organisms also meant the burial of the carbon that they contained, leading to formation of our coal, oil and natural gas deposits. As the rate of C14 formation is independent from the levels of normal carbon, the drop in available C12 would not have reduced the rate of C14 production. Even if the rate of C14 formation had not increased after the Flood, there would have been a fundamental shift in the ratio towards a relatively higher radiocarbon content.
The amount of C14 present in the pre-flood environment is also limited by the relatively short time less than years which had elapsed between Creation and the Flood. Even if one is generous and allows for the current rate of C14 production to have ocurred throughout this period, the maximum amount of C14 in existence then is less than a fourth of the amount present today.
The last years have seen this effect occur in reverse. Our massive consumption of fossil fuels is releasing the carbon which has been locked up in the Earth's crust for the last four or five millennia.
The effect has been complicated by the addition of manmade radioactive carbon to the biosphere because of nuclear explosions and experimentation. And God said, Let there be a space in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
And God made the space, and divided the waters which [were] under the space from the waters which [were] above the space: And God called the space Heaven.
And there was evening and there was morning - Day Two. The water vapour layer had many significant effects. It increased atmospheric pressure, making absorption of oxygen by living creatures a much easier process than it is today. The increased pressure and the presence of a huge quantity of atmospheric water vapour kept the humidity high, thus encouraging lush plant growth.
Warm, moist conditions allowed the growth of "tropical" species in areas that are temperate today and the growth of "temperate" species in polar regions. The water vapour layer was responsible for the fossilised forests found in Antarctica today. The surface of the earth was also shielded from the effects of ultraviolet radiation by the water vapour layer, another factor making life easier in the past. All of these effects reduced environmental stress on living creatures, thus allowing larger species to flourish.
The water vapour canopy and the strengthened magnetic field would also have reduced the number of damaging mutations to a rarity. These effects would have contributed significantly to the long life spans the Bible gives the Pre-Flood humans. Significantly, the water vapour layer also had an effect on the formation of C As Carbon 14 is formed by neutrons produced from cosmic radiation striking nitrogen atoms in the upper atmosphere, the thick layer of almost pure water molecules above our 'normal' upper atmosphere absorbed many neutrons before they could reach the atmospheric nitrogen.
This greatly decreased the amount of C14 being produced. The water vapour canopy was one source of the rain during the Great Flood. The event that triggered the massive geothermal upheaval during Noah's life also made the water vapour canopy unstable.
Over a period of forty days the water vapour layer was totally destroyed. This would have allowed production of C14 to immediately increase enormously. The values have been calculated using a computerised simulation that assumes the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12 at the time of the Flood was one-thousandth of what it is today. This rate would slow over time as greater amounts of C14 present would lead to greater amounts of C14 decaying, eventually balancing the amount produced.
The Magnetic Field effects have been superimposed on these values as stated above. As we go farther back in time, the difference between the two dating systems becomes greater. After the Flood, there is a steady increase in the production rate of carbon This, coupled to the removal of most of the Carbon 12, results in a sharp decrease in the difference between the actual dates and the radiocarbon dates.
In the hundred-year period from BCE to BCE, the difference between the two dates shrinks from 61, years to 17, years. Though the atmospheric changes are quite dramatic, these changes were only slowly incorporated into the massive amount of almost pure common carbon found in the Biosphere.
Another factor which may be involved in all these events has been proposed by physicist Dr Russell Humphreys. He has suggested that the main driving force behind many of the Flood processes may have been a temporary relaxation of the nuclear binding forces. This acceleration of radioactivity would result in bulk heating of all rocks containing moderate to high levels of radioactive material. This heat could vaporise massive amounts of water, some of which would condense as snow and form gigantic glaciers.
The heat would also liquefy nearly molten rocks, causing vast volcanic eruptions and assist the sliding of tectonic plates during and after the Flood. The rapid accumulation of radioactive decay end products would give the rocks an appearance of enormous age. If the accelerated decay rate lasted the entire days that the Ark was afloat when the water would provide effective shielding for its occupants , it would cover the most active phase of sedimentation during the Flood.
If such accelerated decay actually occurred, it is probable that whatever C14 had existed before that time would have been converted back into nitrogen. Sapwood layers the living xylem and phloem are the tree's transportation system. Xylem carries the supply of water and minerals that the roots extract from the soil up to the leaves. Leaves absorb carbon dioxide and oxygen from the air and combine them with the minerals and water from the roots. With the added input of energy from the sun, the leaves create a variety of sugars and other organic compounds that the tree requires.
The phloem layer, just inside the bark, carries this food to the rest of the tree. As the tree grows, the inner layers of xylem are sealed up and die, forming heartwood. New sapwood layers form each year to replace the 'lost' sapwood.
When the xylem turns into heartwood, it stops gathering radiocarbon. Its radiocarbon content then begins to decrease. However, after the Flood, the ratios were not stable. A look at the different dates that would be given by samples taken from various layers of trees tells the story: Early Post-Flood Trees We will look at the radiocarbon 'dates' that would result from samples taken from different parts of a tree that began growing in BCE BC , possibly three years after the Flood.
Let's assume that the tree grew for years, when it blew down and the tree was used by people for firewood and building materials. A beam split from heartwood formed in BCE near the outside of the tree would have a radiocarbon date of 14, BCE.
Another beam cut from heartwood formed in BCE halfway to the centre of the trunk would have a radiocarbon date of 20, BCE. A final beam split out of the centre of the tree, made of heartwood that had formed in BCE, would give a radiocarbon date of 39, BCE. The beams made from this one tree would give a range of radiocarbon 'dates' from 14, to 39, BCE. If pieces of these three beams were later found by archeologists, they could claim that the site had been occupied for 25, years, from about 15, to 40, BCE.
The reality might be that the site was occupied for thirty years from to BCE. Assuming that the site was genuinely occupied for several hundred years, we can look at the effects that another tree which started growing in BCE would have on radiocarbon dates.
We will assume that this tree also lived for years before it was cut down. This time, a beam split from heartwood near the outside of the tree, formed in BCE would have a radiocarbon date of 9, BCE. Another beam cut from heartwood formed in BCE halfway to the centre of the trunk would have a radiocarbon date of 11, BCE. A final beam split out of the centre of the tree, made of heartwood that had formed in BCE, would give a radiocarbon date of 14, BCE. The beams made from the second tree would give a range of radiocarbon 'dates' from 14, to 9, BCE.
Combining the effects of these two trees, we see a site that was actually occupied for years from to BCE appearing - using conventional radiocarbon dating - to have been occupied for 30, years from 40, to 9, BCE. Logs that show an enormous span of years from one point to another are simply dismissed as contaminated samples. We have demonstrated that there are definitely reasons to doubt the accuracy of the radiocarbon dates that are so widely used to 'prove' the age of an artefact.
The quotes given above, from authorities working in the radiocarbon dating field, show that even without invoking major changes in the past there are good reasons to be very sceptical about radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon Dating is useful to compare the relative ages of equivalent samples where it is likely the samples have all been exposed to similar environmental conditions.
However, for older samples, the data can only suggest that Sample A is probably older than Sample B, etc. It is merely speculation when the results are used to 'establish' an absolute date for older material.