It was often used to show objects moving as if by magic, but really by animation. The first instance of the stop-motion technique can be credited to Albert E.
Stuart Blackton for Vitagraph 's The Humpty Dumpty Circus , in which a toy circus of acrobats and animals comes to life. In , The Haunted Hotel is a new stop-motion film by J. Stuart Blackton , and was a resounding success when released. One of the earliest clay animation films was Modelling Extraordinary, which impressed audiences in December brought the first of Willie Hopkins' 54 episodes of "Miracles in Mud" to the big screen.
Also in December , the first woman animator, Helena Smith Dayton , began experimenting with clay stop motion. She would release her first film in , an adaptation of William Shakespeare 's Romeo and Juliet. In the turn of the century, there was another well known animator known as Willis O' Brien known by others as O'bie. His work on The Lost World is well known, but he is most admired for his work on King Kong , a milestone of his films made possible by stop-motion animation.
O'Brien's protege and eventual successor in Hollywood was Ray Harryhausen. After learning under O'Brien on the film Mighty Joe Young , Harryhausen would go on to create the effects for a string of successful and memorable films over the next three decades. In a promotional film, Autolite , an automotive parts supplier, featured stop-motion animation of its products marching past Autolite factories to the tune of Franz Schubert 's Military March.
An abbreviated version of this sequence was later used in television ads for Autolite, especially those on the s CBS program Suspense , which Autolite sponsored. Noyes also used stop motion to animate sand lying on glass for his musical animated film Sandman In , filmmaker and clay animation experimenter Will Vinton joined with sculptor Bob Gardiner to create an experimental film called Closed Mondays which became the world's first stop-motion film to win an Oscar.
In , Vinton made a documentary about this process and his style of animation which he dubbed "claymation"; he titled the documentary Claymation. Soon after this documentary, the term was trademarked by Vinton to differentiate his team's work from others who had been, or were beginning to do, "clay animation". While the word has stuck and is often used to describe clay animation and stop motion, it remains a trademark owned currently by Laika Entertainment, Inc.
Twenty clay-animation episodes featuring the clown Mr. Bill were a feature of Saturday Night Live , starting from a first appearance in February The five-inch-high presenter was made from a traditional British modelling clay called Plasticine. In they started on a series of animated films, again using modelling clay, but this time made for a more adult audience.
The soundtrack for Down and Out was recorded in a Salvation Army Hostel and Plasticine puppets were animated to dramatise the dialogue.
A second film, also for the BBC followed in Hoedeman was one of dozens of animators sheltered by the National Film Board of Canada , a Canadian government film arts agency that had supported animators for decades. A pioneer of refined multiple stop-motion films under the NFB banner was Norman McLaren , who brought in many other animators to create their own creatively controlled films.
Notable among these are the pinscreen animation films of Jacques Drouin, made with the original pinscreen donated by Alexandre Alexeieff and Claire Parker. Italian stop-motion films include Quaq Quao , by Francesco Misseri , which was stop motion with origami , The Red and the Blue and the clay animation kittens Mio and Mao.
Disney experimented with several stop-motion techniques by hiring independent animator-director Mike Jittlov to make the first stop-motion animation of Mickey Mouse toys ever produced, in a short sequence called Mouse Mania, part of a TV special, Mickey's 50, which commemorated Mickey's 50th anniversary in Jittlov again produced some impressive multi-technique stop-motion animation a year later for a Disney special promoting their release of the feature film The Black Hole.
Titled Major Effects, Jittlov's work stood out as the best part of the special. Jittlov released his footage the following year to 16mm film collectors as a short film titled The Wizard of Speed and Time , along with four of his other short multi-technique animated films, most of which eventually evolved into his own feature-length film of the same title.
Effectively demonstrating almost all animation techniques, as well as how he produced them, the film was released to theaters in and to video in The many shots including the ghosts in Raiders of the Lost Ark and the first two feature films in the RoboCop series use Phil Tippett's go motion version of stop motion. In the UK, Aardman Animations continued to grow. Channel 4 funded a new series of clay animated films, Conversation Pieces , using recorded soundtracks of real people talking.
In , Marc Paul Chinoy directed the 1st feature-length clay animated film, based on the famous Pogo comic strip. Titled I go Pogo. It was aired a few times on American cable channels but has yet to be commercially released.
Primarily clay, some characters required armatures, and walk cycles used pre-sculpted hard bases legs. Allen's King Kong Volkswagen commercial from the s is now legendary among model animation enthusiasts. In , Will Vinton and his team released an ambitious feature film in stop motion called "The Adventures Of Mark Twain" based on the life and works of the famous American author.
While the film may have been a little sophisticated for young audiences at the time, it got rave reviews from critics and adults in general. In the 80's and early 90's, Will Vinton became very well known for his commercial work as well with stop-motion campaigns including The California Raisins.
These include Alice , an adaptation of Lewis Carroll 's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , and Faust , a rendition of the legend of the German scholar. Since the general animation renaissance headlined by the likes of Who Framed Roger Rabbit and The Little Mermaid at the end of the s and the beginning of the s, there have been an increasing number of traditional stop-motion feature films, despite advancements with computer animation.
In , Will Vinton launched the first prime-time stop-motion television series called The PJs , co-created by actor-comedian Eddie Murphy. The Emmy-winning sitcom aired on Fox for two seasons, then moved to the WB for an additional season. Another individual who found fame in clay animation is Nick Park , who created the characters Wallace and Gromit. The Curse of the Were-Rabbit. The BBC commissioned thirteen episodes of stop frame animated Summerton Mill in as inserts into their flagship pre-school program, Tikkabilla.
Variations of stop motion[ edit ] Cutout animation[ edit ] Cutout animation is a variant of stop-motion animation that utilises flat materials such as paper, fabrics and photographs in its production, producing a 2D animation as a result. Prominent examples of cutout animation include the early episodes of South Park , and the Charley Says series of British public information films.
Stereoscopic stop motion[ edit ] Stop motion has very rarely been shot in stereoscopic 3D throughout film history. The first all stop-motion 3D feature is Coraline , based on Neil Gaiman 's best-selling novel and directed by Henry Selick.
Another recent example is the Nintendo 3DS video software which comes with the option for Stop Motion videos. This has been released December 8, as a 3DS system update.
Also, the movie ParaNorman is in 3D stop motion. Go motion[ edit ] Another more complicated variation on stop motion is go motion , co-developed by Phil Tippett and first used on the films The Empire Strikes Back , Dragonslayer , and the RoboCop films. Go motion involved programming a computer to move parts of a model slightly during each exposure of each frame of film, combined with traditional hand manipulation of the model in between frames, to produce a more realistic motion blurring effect.
Tippett also used the process extensively in his short film Prehistoric Beast , a 10 minutes long sequence depicting a herbivorous dinosaur Monoclonius , being chased by a carnivorous one Tyrannosaurus.
With new footage Prehistoric Beast became Dinosaur! Those Phil Tippett's go motion tests acted as motion models for his first photo-realistic use of computers to depict dinosaurs in Jurassic Park in A low-tech, manual version of this blurring technique was originally pioneered by Wladyslaw Starewicz in the silent era, and was used in his feature film The Tale of the Fox Comparison to computer-generated imagery[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message Reasons for using stop motion instead of the more advanced computer-generated imagery CGI include the low entry price and the appeal of its distinct look.
It is now mostly used in children's programming, in commercials and some comic shows such as Robot Chicken. Another merit of stop motion is that it legitimately displays actual real-life textures, as CGI texturing is more artificial, therefore not quite as close to realism.
Stop motion in television and movies[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. March Learn how and when to remove this template message Dominating children's TV stop-motion programming for three decades in America was Art Clokey 's Gumby series — and its feature film, Gumby I , , using both freeform and character clay animation.
Clokey started his adventures in clay with a freeform clay short film called Gumbasia which shortly thereafter propelled him into his more structured Gumby TV series. New episodes, minus any propaganda, are still being produced in the now-reunified Germany ,  making it one of the longest running animated series in the world.
A British TV series, Clangers , became popular on television. The British artists Brian Cosgrove and Mark Hall Cosgrove Hall Films produced the two stop-motion animated adaptions of Enid Blyton 's Noddy book series including the original series of the same name — and Noddy's Toyland Adventures — , a full-length film The Wind in the Willows and later a multi-season TV series , both based on Kenneth Grahame 's classic children's book of the same title.
They also produced a documentary of their production techniques, Making Frog and Toad. Since the s and continuing into the 21st century, Aardman Animations , a British studio, has produced short films, television series, commercials and feature films, starring plasticine characters such as Wallace and Gromit ; they also produced a notable music video for " Sledgehammer ", a song by Peter Gabriel.
Mouse for ABC television. The shows featured stop-motion characters combined with live action, based on the books of Beverly Cleary. In the s Trey Parker and Matt Stone made two shorts and the pilot of South Park almost entirely out of construction paper.
With the shorts animated by stop-motion studio dwarf is still currently produced in Japan and has then received universal critical acclaim from fans and critics. In , the pilot film for the series Curucuru and Friends , produced by Korean studio Ffango Entertoyment is greenlighted into a children's animated series in after an approval with the Gyeonggi Digital Contents Agency.
Ffango Entertoyment also worked with Frontier Works in Japan to produce the film remake of Cheburashka. Stop motion in other media[ edit ] Many young people begin their experiments in movie making with stop motion, thanks to the ease of modern stop-motion software and online video publishing.
The video, directed by Lavie and Yuval and Merav Nathan, uses stop motion and has achieved great success with over Stop motion has occasionally been used to create the characters for computer games, as an alternative to CGI. The Virgin Interactive Entertainment Mythos game Magic and Mayhem featured creatures built by stop-motion specialist Alan Friswell, who made the miniature figures from modelling clay and latex rubber, over armatures of wire and ball-and-socket joints.
The models were then animated one frame at a time, and incorporated into the CGI elements of the game through digital photography. Scientists at IBM used a scanning tunneling microscope to single out and move individual atoms which were used to make characters in A Boy and His Atom. This was the tiniest scale stop-motion video made at that time.