This usage contrasts to that in the United States , where it is used to refer to people of East Asian origin. The United Kingdom Census was the first to include a question on ethnicity apart from in Northern Ireland, where the question was not asked until The question had tick-boxes for "Indian", "Pakistani" and "Bangladeshi".
There was also a "Chinese" tick box, as well as a general "Any other ethnic group please describe " option for those not wishing to identify with any of the pre-set tick boxes.
For the Census , in England and Wales, "Indian", "Pakistani" and "Bangladeshi" and "Any other Asian background please write in " options were grouped under an "Asian or Asian British" heading, with "Chinese" appearing under a separate heading. In Scotland, all of these tick-boxes were grouped together under an "Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British " heading, and in Northern Ireland no broad headings were used, just tick-boxes for each of the Asian groups.
The second largest ethnic group of British Pakistanis are the Punjabi people, largely from Attock District of Punjab followed by pathans and other ethnic groups from the districts of Nowshera , Peshwar and Ghazi in province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. Districts include Sylhet, Habiganj, Moulvibazar, and Sunamganj. Due to a growing sense of affiliation with Britain, many third generation South Asians chose to not mark "Asian or British Asian" and instead marked "British Asian" in the "Other Asian" write in section.
Gujaratis who emigrated from India and East Africa speak Gujarati , Hindi , and Kutchi a dialect of Sindhi , while a sizeable number of Gujarati Muslims speak Urdu for religious and cultural reasons. People from Sri Lanka speak Tamil and Sinhala. Those who speak dialects mainly refer their language to the main language, for example Sylheti speakers say they speak Bengali or Mirpuri speakers say they speak Punjabi. The reason for this is because they do not expect outsiders to be well informed about dialects.
The first wave was before India's independence in In the early s the Conservative Health Minister, Enoch Powell recruited a large number of doctors from the Indian sub-continent. The second wave occurred in the s mainly from East Africa.
The last wave of migration began in the s and included Tamil refugees from Sri Lanka and professionals including doctors and software engineers from India.
British Gujaratis are predominantly Hindu, belonging to various caste organizations, with large minorities of Muslims , Jains , and smaller numbers of Christians and Zoroastrians.
Muslims condemned the book for blasphemy. On 2 December the book was publicly burned at a demonstration in Bolton attended by 7, Muslims, followed by a similar demonstration and book-burning in Bradford on 14 January If the Romany Gypsies are included, then the earliest arrivals were in the Middle Ages.
Romanies are believed to have begun travelling westward around CE, and have mixed with South-west Asian and European populations over many centuries. Romani began arriving in sizeable numbers in parts of Western Europe in the 16th century.
The Romani who settled in Britain are known as Romanichal. In the following century many South Asians arrived in Europe by sea as sailors, slaves and servants. Trade and English piracy brought some of these people to Britain and four South Asian men in London answered the call for sailors for the first English East India Company fleet to Asia.
Their Portuguese names identifies them as mixed-race Portuguese Luso-Asians. The first group of South Asians to migrate in notable numbers, in the 18th century, were lascars sailors recruited from the Indian subcontinent largely from the Bengal region to work for the British East India Company , some, despite prejudice and a language barrier, settled down, often forcibly after ill treatment and being abandoned by ship masters.
Many were forced into poverty and starved. In , 3, lascars arrived in Britain. For Muslim Indians considerations about how their dietary and religious practices would alienate them from British society were brought into question but these considerations were often outweighed by economic opportunities.
Those that stayed often took British names, dress and diet. He is also reputed for introducing shampoo and therapeutic massage to the United Kingdom. He converted to Anglicanism in order to marry her, as it was illegal at the time for non-Protestants to marry Protestants.
They later moved to Brighton. The Lascars were made to live in cramped, dreadful conditions which resulted in the deaths of many each year, with reports of Lascars being locked in cupboards and whipped for misbehavior by owners which was reported by the Society for the Protection of Asiatic Sailors founded in Baptism records in East Greenwich suggest that young Indians from the Malabar Coast were being recruited as servants at the end of the seventeenth century, and records of the EIC also suggest that Indo-Portuguese cooks from Goa were retained by captains from voyage to voyage.
It is estimated 8, Indians a large proportion being lascar sailors lived in Britain permanently prior to the s. Although, the comparatively few lascars that gained work often opened shops and helped initiate social and political community associations. Although this immigration was continuous, several distinct phases can be identified: Manual workers, mainly from Pakistan, were recruited to fulfill the labour shortage that resulted from World War II.
These included Anglo-Indians who were recruited to work on the railways as they had done in India. Workers mainly from the Punjab region of India and some from Pakistan arrived in the late s and s. Many worked in the foundries of the English Midlands and a large number worked at Heathrow Airport in west London. This created an environment to where the next generation of families did not lose their identity as easily. An example would be Southall which is populated by many Sikhs. During the same time, medical staff from the Indian subcontinent were recruited for the newly formed National Health Service.
These people were targeted as the British had established medical schools in the Indian subcontinent which conformed to the British standards of medical training. At first these were the people employed in government and administrative roles, but this was expended to include those Asians engaged in commerce. The movement was called the "Exodus".
Those holding British passports came to Britain. Many such displaced people who were predominantly of Gujarati origins had left behind successful businesses and vast commercial empires in Uganda, but built up their lives all over again in Britain, starting from scratch. Some of these "twice-over" migrants became retailers, while others found suitable employment in white-collar professions.
The Commonwealth Immigrants Act and Immigration Act largely restricted any further primary immigration , although family members of already-settled migrants were still allowed. In addition, much of the subsequent growth in the South Asian community has come from the births of second and third-generation South Asian Britons.
British Asians faced discrimination and racism following Enoch Powell 's Rivers of Blood speech and the establishment of the National Front in the late s. This included overt racism in the form of Paki bashing , predominantly from white power skinheads , the National Front, and the British National Party , throughout the s and s. The biggest influence of South Asians on popular British culture has probably been the spread of Indian cuisine , though of the 9, Indian restaurants in the UK, most are run by Bangladeshis; their ancestral home was part of British India's Bengal province until partition in South Asians have also played a pivotal role in rejuvenating a number of UK street markets.
As in Canada , Bhangra music has become popular among many in Britain  not only from the works of British South Asian musicians such as Panjabi MC , Swami and Rishi Rich but also incorporated into the works of a number of non-South Asian musicians not only British but including North American artists such as Canadian Shania Twain , who created a whole alternate version of her multi-platinum album Up!
Diamond, better known as DJ Swami has also collaborated with rapper Pras , of The Fugees , and his band Swami have become one of the most renowned acts in South Asian music history, having had songs in major Hollywood movies and best-selling video games.
One of the first artists of South Asian Indian origin to achieve mainstream success was Apache Indian who infused reggae and hip hop with Indian popular music to create a sound that transcended genre and found a multicultural audience.
He is the only Indian artist to have achieved 7 top forty hits in the National UK charts. The influence of South Asian music has not only been from South Asians living in the UK, but also from some UK artists that were starting using South Asian instruments creating a new sound that was a mixture of sitars and tablas with more rock-based western instruments like drums and guitar.
Lakshmi Mittal is currently Britain's richest man and the fifth richest man in the world. In , he was the third richest man in the world according to Forbes List of billionaires Born in Mumbai, Kapoor has lived and worked in London since the early s when he moved to study art, first at the Hornsey College of Art and later at the Chelsea College of Art and Design. Kapoor received the Turner Prize in Born in London and of Asian origin Shezad Dawood became known for this work in various media in the early s.
Also born in London and of Pakistani origin, Haroon Mirza emerged as an artist in the late s. Best known for his sculptural installations that generate sound, Mirza was awarded the Silver Lion for the Most Promising Artist at the 54th Venice Biennale in