The current findings do not support that Asian American gay men prefer white partners. In our sample, Additionally, the data set included only a coastal classification East vs. West Coast and an acculturation scale which included cultural identity, language, and competence. The complex effect of nativity and acculturation on dating preference warrants further investigation. Researchers in future studies should pay attention to identifying the key behavioral, social, and affective beliefs that underlie partner preference and examine actual dating practices.
Takahashi, Fan Yu, Kyogo K. Nakayama, Lavinia Lin, Michael W. Asian American Journal of Psychology. Nehl and Colin L. Talley Emory University Paul M. Ong and Lois M. The complex effect of nativity and acculturation on dating preference warrants further investi- gation. Approximately one in seven Asian Americans is of mixed racial background Roughly two thirds reside on the East Coast particularly Eric J.
Wong, Talley, Ong, and Takahashi conceptualized the study and wrote the first draft; Nehl supervised the analyses and revisions; Yu and Nakayama performed the analyses; Lin and Ross contributed to the writing and interpretations of the findings. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Frank Y. This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
Census Bureau, a, b. The selection of marriage partners for heterosexual Asians in the U. Patterns in partner selection seem to have shifted over the past 15 years for heterosexual Asians. However, little is known about partner selection in Asian gay and bisexual men, a group who have often been overlooked in public health Han, b. According to classic works such as Becker , partner selection preferences in heterosexual couples would be similar for each partner in a couple for personal characteristics e.
One way to overcome this limitation is to use a conceptual model that accounts for cultural nuances and has the potential to extend the understanding of Asian gay dating preferences. Not surprisingly, cultural anxieties about race and labor conflicts ensued. In more recent times the masculinity and sexuality of Asian American men has continued largely to be externally defined, which has sustained institutional and cultural racism Shek, Recent studies have found that gay Asian men commonly experience stereotyping and stigmatization.
The stereotypes in- clude that they are passive, submissive, effeminate or sexless, smooth, boyish, lacking in sexual potency, and have a preference for White men and a dependent status in relationship. How- ever, scholarship in this area is currently lacking.
The literature on interracial marriage among Asians in the U. For example, using Census data, Sung as reported in Liang and Ito found that Chinese in New This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
York City who out-marry have higher education levels and income compared to Chinese who in-marry. In contrast, Hwang et al. Fu postulated a tripartite typology to explain racial intermarriage: He used the example that for high social status individuals e. Given these findings and theories, nativity, class e. However, the magnitude of differences for such characteristics was larger in opposite-sex married couples, followed by opposite-sex co- habiting couples, and same-sex cohabiting couples.
Concepts in the IDM take into account ethnic and immigration experiences and would posit that dating preferences may essentially be the output of a process that encompasses one or more generations and moves through at least three impact domains Chng et al.
The cultural norms and understandings prevalent in that setting would be a primary influence on beliefs and behaviors—including sexual mores, shame or stigma, sexual practices, and dating choices Impact Domain 1. Moreover, norms, practices, and beliefs about dating and partner preference may be affected by ongoing acculturation to life in the United States Impact Domain 3. For these individ- uals, the set of salient impact domains may be significantly dif- ferent, though this may vary by the degree to which a particular cultural community remains insulated or lacks a desire for accul- turation to American society in terms of language, social networks, cultural practices, economic participation social norms, gender roles, and behavior codes.
Although the concept of nativity and temporal distance from the immigration experience as presented in Domains 1 and 2 of the IDM are blunt tools for the explanation of personal choices such as dating preferences, the importance of nativity itself lies in Asians being one of the fastest growing U.
Further, it is estimated that Asians will continue to emi- grate to the U. Domain 3 of the conceptual model helps to understand the complex issues Asian gay men face in the U. This may account for some of the selection pressures. The advantage of the Internet is that the dating population pool is vastly extended. For example, acculturation is a complex and dynamic process; that is, the whole is more than the sum of its proxies, such as language and food preference as well as length of stay in the U.
Such changes may be observed in a number of different psychological con- ceptual domains, including attitudes, behaviors, values, and a sense of cultural identity Matsudaira, Acculturation was once proposed to be a unidirectional process, meaning that individuals relinquish their cultures of origin as they acculturate to new cultures Gordon, However, the IDM suggests that acculturation is best described in a multidimensional model. A more complex model does not conceptualize the mutual exclusion of the two cultural identities, but rather holds that individuals can acculturate to new cultures without giving up facets of their cultures of origin Kang, There has been limited research into structures of ethnic identity and how they develop among Asian gay men.
However, whether these factors have an association with dating preferences has yet to be seen. In summary, there are several reasons to explore the dating preferences of Asian MSM. Although Asians are a growing pop- ulation in the U. Therefore, little is known about the dating preferences of Asian MSM. Second, there are racist cultural stereotypes and stigmas surrounding Asian MSM that may not reflect the reality of their behavioral profiles.
Clinicians, counselors, and social support services may be better equipped to provide services to these men if these cultural stereo- types and stigmas are clarified. Third, gay marriage is currently legal in 13 U. Finally, the lines of theoretical research presented above suggest that race and ethnicity, nativity, and acculturation are important factors to explore same-sex dating preferences in Asian gay men. Researchers interested in the social and sexual health of Asian men who have sex with men MSM must try to understand the asso- ciations of demographic factors, nativity, and acculturation with partnering preferences.
In this way the concepts of racial theory and identity such as the IDM can be expanded and further devel- oped. Method This study used two federally funded cross-sectional datasets with a combined sample of men who self-identified Asian and predominately as gay.
Ethical approval of the study protocols was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of Georgetown University. Eligible partic- ipants i. The overall goal of MATH was to establish HIV preva- lence based on serological testing; in addition a psychosocial and behavioral assessment was conducted. For both studies, broad-based participant recruitment strategies were used.
Participant recruitment methods included 1 standard outreach such as distributing study flyers and postcards in gay bars, venues, and public sex areas; 2 announcements via main- stream e. In short, participants in this study constitute a sample of participants purposively recruited to study 4 The last author was PI of the two studies. Prior to engaging in any study activities, participants were given and completed consent forms.
While waiting for the HIV screening result, participants individually completed a self-administered paper-and-pencil or ACASI questionnaire that took about 30 — 45 minutes to complete. English, Mandarin, and Vietnamese versions of the survey were available. A professional translation agency pro- vided the Mandarin and Vietnamese translations and back- translations of the survey. Despite the availability of the translated versions, the majority of participants chose to complete the survey in English.
In order to ensure participant confidentiality, identify- ing information was removed from the datasets and paper surveys were stored in a locked file cabinet MATH or in password- protected electronic files DC-MAPS.
This study, in addition to sociodemographic variables, was interested primarily in the intersection of nativity, acculturation, and dating preferences. For nativity, participants were asked where they were born i.
Among participants who were not born in the United States. Internal consistency for the American accultura- tion component of the scale from this sample was. Dating preference was measured by a series of 13 statements derived from focus group testing among Asian MSM e. Inter- nal consistency for dating preferences from this sample was.
Questions were then categorized by preference White, Asian, or no preference and summed within categories. Finally, participants were classified as having White preference highest quartile of White preference , Asian highest quartile of Asian preference , or no clear prefer- ence.
First, descriptive statistics, stratified by nativity and data source i. Last, to address the research questions two regression analyses and an ordinal PLUM regression predicting dating preference were conducted. Results Table 1 is a summary of sociodemographic characteristics, as well as acculturation, stratified by nativity. Table 2 is a summary of sociodemographic characteristics strat- ified by dating preference.
A majority of participants To address the primary aim, an ordinal PLUM regression was conducted to address: Building on existing research of heterosexual partner selection and the IDM conceptual model, this study examined same-sex dating preferences among Asian gay men in the United States to explore whether or not personal characteristics, nativity, and acculturation might explain dating preferences.
In regards to the research aim, one racist stereotype is that gay Asian American men prefer dating White men. Descriptive results revealed that only In fact, a majority This seems to be in conflict with other qualitative studies which have shown strong preferences for White men among Asian MSM Choi et al. Future studies will be needed to explore and confirm these findings. This does fit the profile of Asian men in the U.