Before Current Era Agricultural Revolution The Agricultural Revolution made permanent settlements possible and the creation of complex civilizations started. Monumental architecture and more elaborate forms of artistic representation reflect an increasingly differentiated social hierarchy. Forms of administration and recording are developed as cities emerge across the region.
The Persian Plateau became the cradle of one of the oldest civilizations and Kingdoms in history. In Iran today, there are 1. Our undocumented history goes way back to the 10th millennium B. E, buried deep in what is now southwestern Iran. So far this has been reported as one of the oldest civilizations in recorded history. By civilization, we mean civilized city government, city state or Kingdom and an advanced state of development in human society, marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of writing, and complex political and social institutions.
Susians were one of the local Iranian races, before the coming of Aryans into Persia. They were an a non-Semitic Hemitic people one of the main divisions of the Caucasic family who had migrated to the Persian Plateau in prehistoric times. Today we know that these civilizations are much older than previously thought due to recent archeological discoveries.
Settlements at Susa date to 7th millennium B. The magnificent historical city of Susa is mentioned in the Old Testament as the place where the biblical Prophet Daniel lived. Susa was built in south-western Persia and marked the progress in complex political and social institutions. Some Governors were subject rulers, some autonomous, and some independent.
After this date, Susa became an independent kingdom and a major power in the region. During this era the number of settled communities increased, particularly in the eastern Zagros mountains. The location of Susa and its closeness to Mesopotamia was the main reason why these civilizations influenced each other in terms of art and monuments despite their racial differences.
Before Current Era Elamite dynasty Several fragmented small kingdoms were united and created the Elamite Nation A first dynasty in the Persian Plateau and began to exert and receive influence from the cultures of the region. This impressive dynasty lasted for over two millenniums.
Susa played a vital role in the development and expansion of the Elamite cultural sphere, and the threat of Assyrian attacks prompted the construction of a large 6 meter thick rammed earth wall about the city. The increasing frequencies in foreign invasions led to a need for centralization and organized defenses. Elam is the name of an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Chogha Zanbil - A late era Elamite complex that was founded in B. The Elamites were non-Semitic Alpine people who had migrated to the Persian Plateau in prehistoric times and Susa became their primary capital of the kingdom.
The Elamite language is regarded by the vast majority of linguists as a language isolate and has no close relation to the neighbouring Semitic languages or to Sumerian. At the end of this period, the Elamites invaded southern Mesopotamia, destroying the city of Ur as a revenge for the previous Babylonian invasions and marked the beginning of a new era of rising Elamite power within the region.
Elamites interfered in Mesopotamian affairs, usually in alliance with Babylon, against the constant pressure of Neo-Assyrian expansion.
Susa later played an important part in Babylonian opposition to the brutal Assyrian domination. Susa Kingdom reign ended by start of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. The Aryans gave Persia its historical name: Arian Tribes who emigrated to the west became the ancestors of Greeks and people who chose east as their destination came to be known as Indo-Iranians.
Aryan Arian means noble or honorable. It is widely held to have been used as an ethnic self-designation of the Iranians. When the Arians finally took over most of the Persian Plateau they started organizing their domains. Small cities, headed by local mayors, and each independent of each other with almost no unity. This method soon proved useless, especially under the constant attack of new masters of Mesopotamia, Assyrians.
Slowly, the Iranian tribes re-organized themselves into united kingdoms modeled after the Elamite dynasty. Indo-Europeans that went west became the ancestors of Greeks and later Romans, those that went east split into several Indo-Iranian caucasian tribes: Persians , Medes , Parthians and Scythians etc. Before Current Era Zarathushtra was the first prophet to introduce the concepts of: Many of these concepts had a profound influence on Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
That mistake alone is the main reason why many ancient Greek historians wrongly believed that Zarathustra lived around B. E years before the reign of the Macedonian king Alexander, when in fact Zarathustra lived over 14 centuries before him. Origin of Christmas Yalda: Origin of Christmas The Christmas celebrations actually derive from the Indo-European celebration of Yalda during the longest night of the year on the eve of the Winter Solstice. On the Yalda night, Persians used to stay awake all night till the dawn and normally the following days were a holiday December 22— It was also the Day of Equality because on this day the Monarchs and Nobles were to dress just like ordinary people so as not to be recognized in the crowd and nobody was supposed to give order.
On December 25th Arians celebrated Mithrakana: The Birth of Mithra Angelic divinity of covenant and oath and hanged a wreathe of green cypress on their doors, gave gifts to their loved ones and feasted the night together. The birtyday of Mithra Mehr was celebrated in Persia, Rome and other parts of Europe as Mithraism rapidly spread throughout the ancient world, Coincidence with Jewish Hanukkah Festival of Lights is not just an accident.
An old tradition that would serve as a green movement today was that everyone pledged to plant a cedar tree during the festival of Yalda. Christmas tree, holy bread and more other things entered, in this way The oldest record of the Yalda night celebrated throughout the Indo-European world dates back to B. Norouz is the most cherished of all the Persian festivals and has been celebrated for more than years according to the latest archeological and historical discoveries. The Persian New Year always begins on the first day of spring March 20th each year, at the exact time the sun enters Aries Its exact time is calculated according to ancient astronomical methods established by a solar calendar in Persia.
Norouz ceremonies are symbolic representations of two ancient concepts: A few weeks before the New Year, Persians clean and rearrange their homes. They make new clothes, bake pastries and germinate seeds as sign of renewal and decorate their family Norouz table. The ceremonial cloth is set up in each household.
Troubadours, referred to as Haji Firuz, disguise themselves with makeup and wear brightly colored outfits of satin. These Haji Firuz, singing and dancing, parade as a carnival through the streets with tambourines, kettle drums, and trumpets to spread good cheer and the news of the coming new year.
Some of the activities during Norooz are Spring cleaning, painting eggs, family reunions, Persian dancing, exchanging presents, visiting neighbors and friends etc. The Norouz holiday and celebrations ends by having a massive family picnic on the 13th day of Spring. Persian Median Empire Aryan nomads unite their kingdoms B.
The Assyrians had built a very strong army that ruled over a vast area without any tolerance for other civilizations. Their source of wealth was plundering the weak and not let them regain power.
They enslaved many nations including the Jews and most of the Persian Plateau. Assyrians destroyed the Elam kingdom leaving behind an ancient ruin called the Burnt City. This marked the end of years of Elamite kingdom and the Start of a New Era for the Aryan nomads. Aryan nomads unite their Kingdoms Three groups of Aryan nomads: An alliance between the Medians and Persians put an end to the Assyrian terror forever.
After their defeat, many Medians were settled in Assyrian-territory in the region in order to prevent Assyrians from emerging again. The Medes were Iranian people, who lived in the north, western, and northwestern portions of present-day Iran, and roughly the areas of present day Tehran, Hamedan, Azarbaijan, north of Esfahan, Zanjan, and Kurdistan. This region was known in Greek as Media. The historical city of Susa which was destroyed by the Assyrians was rebuilt during the Persian Achaemenid Dynasty and became the second winter capital for official affairs and also the ceremonial capital of the Empire.
Princess Mandana Mandana Mandane — B. According to ancient greek historian Herodotus, after the birth of Cyrus, King Astyages had a strange dream that his Magi Court Magician interpreted as a sign that his grandson would eventually overthrow him.
He then ordered his steward Harpagus to get rid of the boy. Harpagus, morally unable to do so hid the child with a shepherd named Mitridates. Cyrus grew up without knowing that he came from a Royal Bloodline. According to this legend, Cyrus would eventually defy his grandfather, King Astyages, leading to a great war between them; as the dream had forecast.
King Darius the Great named his daughter Mandana after her. He established the Persian Empire in B. Before Current Era The Achaemenid Persian Empire was the first humane, equal and religiously tolerant empire and consisted of a multitude of different languages, races, religions and cultures.
It was the largest empire the ancient world had known, stretched in three continents and twenty-five nations. It made possible the first significant and continuous contact between East and West.
The Persian Empire was also the first system of Federal Governments in the world! In detail, Each State had absolute internal autonomy to do as they pleased in their own internal affairs. All states had control over their affairs, their Educational system, local languages and even their own military forces! The only things that Persepolis required was absolute obedience to central government on international political and military affairs. Persian respect for local traditions, laws, languages, and religions set the foundation of a relatively benevolent empire.
Federalism is what made Persia strong! Even in times of war, each nation had to provide their own military force and combine they had to defend Mother Persia! They had to defend the Empire because the Empire guaranteed their internal autonomy, rights, freedom, independence, equality and humanity!
This was the system, which Cyrus the Great built and the first humane Federal Empire of its kind in the world. The royal ceremonial capital of the Persian Empire Prior to the rise of the Roman Empire, it set a precedent for the importance of the rule of law, a powerful centralized army and an efficient and systematic state administration.
However, the greatest legacy of the Persian Empire was that it demonstrated for the first time how diverse peoples can culturally flourish and economically prosper under one central government.
His humanity was equaled by his freedom from pride, which induced him to meet people on the same level, instead of affecting the remoteness and aloofness, which characterized the great monarchs who preceded and followed him.