Chinese marriage Confucius described marriage as "the union of two surnames, in friendship and in love". Some men also practiced sororate marriage , that is, a marriage to a former wife's sister or a polygynous marriage to both sisters.
This would have the effect of eliminating parallel-cousin marriage as an option, but would leave cross-cousin marriage acceptable. However, enforcement proved difficult and by the subsequent Qing Dynasty, the former laws had been restored. There are only two clans there Which have intermarried for many generations.
Anthropologist Francis Hsu described mother's brother's daughter MBD as being the most preferred type of Chinese cousin marriage, mother's sister's daughter MSD as being tolerated, and father's brother's daughter FBD as being disfavored. In Chinese culture, these patrilineal ties are most important in determining the closeness of a relation. Finally, one reason that MBD marriage is often most common may be the typically greater emotional warmth between a man and his mother's side of the family.
Cousin marriage in the Middle East Cousin marriage has been allowed throughout the Middle East for all recorded history. Here the girl is not forced to marry her male cousin, but she cannot marry another unless he gives consent.
When the marriage procession progressed with the bride toward the house of the bridegroom, the male cousin rushed forward, snatched away the girl, and forced her into his own house. This was regarded by all as a lawful marriage. Cousin marriage rates were highest among women,[ clarification needed ] merchant families, and older well-established families. It existed in Medina during Muhammad's time, but at less than today's rates. One source from the s states that cousin marriage was less common in Cairo than in other areas.
In traditional Syria-Palestina, if a girl had no paternal male cousin father's brother's son or he renounced his right to her, the next in line was traditionally the maternal male cousin mother's brother's son and then other relatives. Raphael Patai, however, reported that this custom loosened in the years preceding his study. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations.
He has shown that while a clear functional connection exists between Islam and FBD marriage, the prescription to marry a FBD does not appear to be sufficient to persuade people to actually marry thus, even if the marriage brings with it economic advantages. According to Korotayev, a systematic acceptance of parallel-cousin marriage took place when Islamization occurred together with Arabization. Muslim Hausa practice cousin marriage preferentially, and polygyny is allowed if the husband can support multiple wives.
She recounts in the book that her good friend married the friend's first cross cousin. These included not only cousin marriages, but also uncle-niece unions. Reportedly, it is a custom that in such marriages at least one spouse must be a relative, and generally such spouses were the preferred or favorite wives in the marriage and gave birth to more children.
However, this was not a general study of Yoruba, but only of highly polygynous Yoruba residing in Oka Akoko. Men are forbidden to marry within their own patrilineage or those of their mother or father's mother and must marry outside their own village. Igbo are almost entirely Christian, having converted heavily under colonialism. The prospect of a man marrying a former wife's "sister" was seen as incest, and conversely for a woman and her former husband's "brother".
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