Single music — In music, a single or record single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record, an album or an EP record. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats, in most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually also appears on an album.
Typically, these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular, in other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album. As digital downloading and audio streaming have become prevalent, it is often possible for every track on an album to also be available separately.
Nevertheless, the concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a heavily promoted or more popular song within an album collection. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks on them. The biggest digital music distributor, iTunes, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as well as popular music player Spotify also following in this trend.
Any more than three tracks on a release or longer than thirty minutes in total running time is either an Extended Play or if over six tracks long. The basic specifications of the single were made in the late 19th century.
Gramophone discs were manufactured with a range of speeds and in several sizes. By about , however, the inch,78 rpm shellac disc had become the most commonly used format, the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. With these factors applied to the inch format, songwriters and performers increasingly tailored their output to fit the new medium, the breakthrough came with Bob Dylans Like a Rolling Stone.
Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, inch, other, less common, formats include singles on digital compact cassette, DVD, and LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc.
Some artist release singles on records, a more common in musical subcultures. The most common form of the single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its speed,45 rpm. The 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable, the first 45 rpm records were monaural, with recordings on both sides of the disc.
As stereo recordings became popular in the s, almost all 45 rpm records were produced in stereo by the early s 2. They began playing covers in Western Australian pubs and clubs, occasionally playing some of their original music, mainstays were main composer and keyboardist Andrew Farriss, drummer Jon Farriss, guitarists Tim Farriss and Kirk Pengilly, bassist Garry Gary Beers and main lyricist and vocalist Michael Hutchence.
Initially known for their new style, the band later developed a harder pub rock style that included funk. In , INXS first charted in their native Australia with their debut self-titled album, but later garnered moderate success in countries with Shabooh Shoobah. Though The Swing brought more success from around the world, its single Original Sin was even greater commercially, in the s, INXS achieved a greater fan following through Hutchences romance with fellow Australian singer Kylie Minogue, and achieved greater acclaim in the United Kingdom.
However, starting with Welcome to Wherever You Are, in , after Hutchence was found dead in his hotel suite in Sydney in November , the band did not perform publicly for a year.
They made appearances with several guest singers, including Jimmy Barnes, Terence Trent DArby and Jon Stevens, Stevens formally joined the band for a tour and recording session in In late , the recorded and released Original Sin.
In , Tim Farriss, Andrews older brother, invited Andrew, Hutchence and Beers to join him, Tim and Pengilly had been playing together since as either an acoustic duo, Kirk and Tim, or as a four-piece band called Guinness.
The band made their debut on 16 August at Whale Beach,40 km north of Sydney. Andrew Farriss remembers, I thought the show went really well, but I think my dad summed it up the day, Great show. I think everyone might have been stoned and they briefly performed as The Vegetables, singing We Are the Vegetables, before returning to Sydney ten months later, where they recorded a set of demos.
It was released on 29 November and it is notable for being the only album with new lead singer J. Fortune since the death of Michael Hutchence as well as for having production work by English hit-maker Guy Chambers. The album received mixed critical reviews, the albums songwriting and quality from song to song was found to be inconsistent and varied by critics such as Matt Collar of Allmusic. However, some reviewers also complimented frontman J. Fortunes singing as well as the inclusion of guest vocalists such as Suzie McNeil, INXS co-founder and original lead singer, Michael Hutchence, died on 22 November , reportedly of suicide.
Tim Farriss told Entertainment Weekly after Michael died, we wanted to search the world for a new singer, embrace the concept, weve now found a fantastic way to make that happen. Fortune, a homeless former Elvis impersonator, ultimately won the competition, with Tim Farriss declaring the band chose him because of his slightly dangerous edge. The first single released from Switch was Pretty Vegas, written by J. Fortune and it was released exclusively through iTunes Store on 4 October for two weeks.
Three singles were released from the album in America, with Pretty Vegas reaching number 37 on the Billboard Hot It paints Michael as a wild boy, drifting with the stars. Gods Top Ten was only released as a single in Poland. The song Afterglow is also dedicated to Hutchence, through different US digital service providers, the album has bonus tracks.
Music will host a new mix of Devils Party, after each DSPs period of exclusivity, the whole package will be made available across all providers.
The CD audio side of the features the album in full. It was reissued by indie label MX3, Switch was released on 29 November 4. CD single — This article is about the 12cm single.
Not to be confused with 8cm single, the standard in the Red Book for the term CD single. A CD single is a single in the form of a standard size compact disc. It is not to be confused with the Mini CD single, the format was introduced in the mids but did not gain its place in the market until the early s.
With the rise in digital downloads in the early s, sales of CD singles have decreased, commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs up to six songs like an EP. Some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs, in the tradition of 12 vinyl singles, depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts.
Containing four tracks, it had a limited print run. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in , the Mini CD single format was originally created for use for singles in the late s, but met with limited success, particularly in the US. The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and have become more common in Europe.
In the UK, record companies would also release two CDs but, usually, these consisted of three tracks or more each. Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single ever being released.
In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is set to become extinct, while CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artists albums. On a Mission by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart, Target and Big W, sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has also ceased selling CD singles.
In Greece and Cyprus, the term CD single is used to describe a play in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks. These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart with songs released as singles, in September , there was talk of ringtones for mobile phones outstripping CD singles sales for the year 5.
Alternative rock — Alternative rock is a genre of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the s and became widely popular in the s and s. In this instance, the word refers to the genres distinction from mainstream rock music. The terms original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their debt to either the musical style or simply the independent. Ethos of punk rock, which in the late s laid the groundwork for alternative music, Alternative rock is a broad umbrella term consisting of music that differs greatly in terms of its sound, its social context, and its regional roots.
By the end of the decade, alternative rocks mainstream prominence declined due to a number of events that caused grunge and Britpop to fade, emo attracted attention in the larger alternative rock world, and the term was applied to a variety of artists, including multi-platinum acts. Post-punk revival artists such as Modest Mouse and The Killers had commercial success in the early, before the term alternative rock came into common usage around , the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms.
College rock was used in the United States to describe the music during the s due to its links to the radio circuit. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture, according to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called Alternative Charts.
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January , at the time, the term indie was used literally to describe independently distributed records.
By , indie had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, at first the term referred to intentionally non—mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave and high-energy dance anthems. The use of alternative gained further exposure due to the success of Lollapalooza, for which festival founder, in the late s, the definition again became more specific. Defining music as alternative is often difficult because of two conflicting applications of the word, the name alternative rock essentially serves as an umbrella term for underground music that has emerged in the wake of punk rock since the mids.
Alternative bands during the s generally played in clubs, recorded for indie labels. This approach to lyrics developed as a reflection of the social and economic strains in the United States and United Kingdom of the s, by , a majority of groups signed to independent record labels mined from a variety of rock and particularly s rock influences. This represented a break from the futuristic, hyper-rational post-punk years 6. Sylvia Rhone was appointed president in March , Epic Records was launched in by Columbia Records for the purpose of marketing jazz, pop and classical music that did not fit the theme of its more mainstream Columbia Records label.
Initial classical music releases were from Philips Records which distributed Columbia product in Europe, pop talent on co-owned Okeh Records were transferred to Epic which made Okeh a rhythm and blues label.
Epics bright-yellow, black, and blue became a familiar trademark for many jazz. By , the musical base had been expanded to include all genres. This was done in part to prevent the roster of Columbia Records from being overstuffed with newer artists, subsequently, Epic became better known for its signing of newer, fledgling acts.
Epic was involved in a trade of artists. Also contributing to the success was its distribution of Philadelphia International Records. Songwriter — A songwriter is an individual who writes the lyrics, melodies and chord progressions for songs, typically for a popular music genre such as rock or country music.
A songwriter can also be called a composer, although the term tends to be used mainly for individuals from the classical music genre. The pressure from the industry to produce popular hits means that songwriting is often an activity for which the tasks are distributed between a number of people.
For example, a songwriter who excels at writing lyrics might be paired with a songwriter with a gift for creating original melodies, pop songs may be written by group members from the band or by staff writers — songwriters directly employed by music publishers. Some songwriters serve as their own publishers, while others have outside publishers. The old-style apprenticeship approach to learning how to write songs is being supplemented by university degrees and college diplomas, a knowledge of modern music technology, songwriting elements and business skills are necessary requirements to make a songwriting career in the s.
Several music colleges offer songwriting diplomas and degrees with music business modules, the legal power to grant these permissions may be bought, sold or transferred. This is governed by international copyright law, song pitching can be done on a songwriters behalf by their publisher or independently using tip sheets like RowFax, the MusicRow publication and SongQuarters.
Skills associated with song-writing include entrepreneurism and creativity, songwriters who sign an exclusive songwriting agreement with a publisher are called staff writers. In the Nashville country music scene, there is a staff writer culture where contracted writers work normal 9-to-5 hours at the publishing office and are paid a regular salary. This salary is in effect the writers draw, an advance on future earnings, the publisher owns the copyright of songs written during the term of the agreement for a designated period, after which the songwriter can reclaim the copyright.
In an interview with HitQuarters, songwriter Dave Berg extolled the benefits of the set-up, unlike contracted writers, some staff writers operate as employees for their respective publishers. Under the terms of work for hire agreements, the compositions created are fully owned by the publisher. In Nashville, young writers are often encouraged to avoid these types of contracts. Staff writers are common across the industry, but without the more office-like working arrangements favored in Nashville.
All the major publishers employ writers under contract, songwriter Allan Eshuijs described his staff writer contract at Universal Music Publishing as a starter deal.
His success under the arrangement eventually allowed him to found his own publishing company, so that he could.